Despite improved access to health services in Aotearoa New Zealand there remains a significant socio-economic and health gap between Māori (Indigenous New Zealanders) and Pākehā (non Māori). E Hine (Girl) is a qualitative Kaupapa Māori (by Māori, for Māori) research project, seeking to identify barriers and facilitators to positive health outcomes for young Māori mothers (under 20 years), and their infants.
This paper explores the birthing experiences of 16 pregnant Māori women under 20 years of age who were involved in E Hine, a Kaupapa Māori (by Māori, for Māori) longitudinal qualitative research study of young Māori women’s journeys through pregnancy and into motherhood that ran from 2010 to 2013. This study provided these young women with an opportunity to share their birthing experiences during kanohi-ki-te-kanohi (face-to-face) interviews. Interpretive phenomenological analysis guided the analysis of these interviews.
Marginalisation occurs when a group of people are pushed to the periphery of a society. Many Māori reside at the margins of ‘mainstream’ society, while others are at the margins of Māori society. The present paper explores how ‘by Māori, for Māori’ research and evaluation can create spaces for voices from the margins to be heard. The paper arose out of a series of hui in which papers on the notion of marginalisation and Māori were presented and discussed, along with the broader topic of research ethics and protocols.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature of talk and its place within kaupapa Māori research. Just as many Māori occasions rely on talk1 to define context and kaupapa, so do research and principles often seek to represent the talk of participants as defining their context and their kaupapa. Within these research processes there are ample opportunities for participants to be both marginalised and/or (re)victimised.