There is a growing array of actors engaged in the field of traditional knowledge (TK). The result is a broad, messy, and contested body of literature. To navigate this conceptual space, this paper provides signposts in the form of a typology. It classifies TK scholarship into four orientations: ecological, critical, relational, and collaborative. Categories are not fixed, mutually exclusive positions, but operate under differing sets of assumptions and towards particular ends. They perform particular work, with important discursive and material implications.