Canadian non- status First Nations are often in conflict with more powerful private interests over resource development on their traditional lands. In response, some non- status First Nations are using traditional environmental knowledge and self- developed spiritual ecologies to reassert sovereignty over ancestral territories. One such group, the Ardoch Algonquin First Nation (AAFN), carries out traditional activities including canoe building, hunting, trapping, and harvesting manoomiin (wild rice) on their traditional lands. AAFN members have had several non- violent conflicts with outside interests over land use in recent years. Our multi- year participatory research project sought to understand AAFN’s traditional spiritual ecology (mino pimàdiziwin) as practised by its members, and systematically compare it with land- use ethics underlying resource development strategies promoted by Ontario’s government. The two are fundamentally at odds, creating potential for future conflicts, but some opportunities for future partnership and collaboration exist. The findings contribute to broader efforts to understand challenges faced by non- status First Nations.