This paper aims at exploring the issue of whether it is possible to treat translation simply as a strategy in which semantic equivalence between the source language and the target language is established, especially in the context of literary translation which involves socio cultural communication, understanding of register, role relations and attitudinal aspects of language. To what extent a translator can contribute in bridging the gap caused by culture and geography is a question of great concern, as all literary texts are deeply couched in the socially determined and historically grown matrix of a particular culture, which proves to be a major impediment in translation. For example, a culturally specific term in source language may not have the corresponding word in the target language and some words have great suggestiveness in certain contexts whereas some images hardly have equivalents in other languages. To authenticate this point, a few examples of Assamese proverbs and idioms are considered that are very much grounded in the Assamese cultural fabric. In addition to these proverbs, the lexical items used in Assamese traditional folk songs are considered, which can pose difficulties for literary translators.